Peru — land of the Inca, Andes and Amazon

Peru — land of the Inca, Andes and Amazon
… unique museums, it's built on the site of a pre-Columbian temple and houses a vast collection of over 2,000 ceramic, textile and precious artifacts, mummies from the different ancient civilizations that conquered Peru and many more archaeological …
Read more on Arab News

'Occupier' enables a living on federal land
… conducting a poll of citizens in Western states: “Charges of government overreach from the ideological fringes are making headlines, but in reality most Westerners in this poll favor greater protection and sensible use of the open lands and …
Read more on Yakima Herald-Republic

Egypt calls experts to study new data on Tut's tomb

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Columbian Treasures
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A friend of mine found these as bookmarks in a book she bought at a flea market.

Egypt calls experts to study new data on Tut's tomb
… are discovered behind the western and northern walls covered in hieroglyphs and bas-reliefs in Tut's tomb, it would likely be the biggest discovery in Egyptology since Howard Carter first discovered the king's 3,300-year-old burial chamber and its …
Read more on The Columbian

Letter: Merge efforts to beautify our parks
Unfortunately, all we may find are weeds and disorder resulting from the reduction of finances and personnel to maintain these treasures. My husband and I recently took a trip to Australia, a country known for its deserts and general lack of water …
Read more on The Columbian

Retaking Syria's Palmyra reveals more shattered antiquities
That may explain why the militants killed the archaeological site's 81-year-old director, Khaled al-Asaad, who was beheaded last August after he reportedly refused to say where authorities had hidden some of the town's treasures. Al-Asaad, who was …
Read more on The Columbian

Treasures found in Butte Creek Mill rubble
“My pouch runneth over,” Medina Russell said to mill owner Bob Russell (no relation) of the vintage treasures gradually filling his pouch. “You did find some stuff!” Bob Russell said to his friend and fellow antiques collector. “I had all my pharmacy …
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Teck spill adds to long history of polluting upper Columbia

Teck spill adds to long history of polluting upper Columbia
NESPELEM—This week Teck Cominco's failure to manage its operations has once again sent toxic pollution into the Columbia River. It is another tragic assault by Teck on the region's natural resources. Teck's disregard for the land, air and water it …
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THIS DAY IN HISTORY: Space Shuttle Columbia Launched From Kennedy Space Center
ABOVE VIDEO: A new era in space flight began on April 12, 1981, when Space Shuttle Columbia, or STS-1, soared into orbit from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. (NASA) – A new era in space flight began on April 12, 1981, when Space Shuttle …

Columbia hosting national symposium on legacy of Reconstruction Era
For two days this week, some of America's leading historians will gather in Columbia to discuss America's Reconstruction Era, a period of great importance to South Carolina history. The Reconstruction Era marked a period in America when African …

The Politics and History of Venezuela

Venezuela, which is located in South America and next to Brazil, Columbia and Guyana, was first inhabited by Carib, Arawak and Chibcha people farming and hunting along the coast, the River of Orinoco as well as the Andean mountain range. On 1522 the first permanent Spanish settlement was established, and this country became a colony of Spain until its independence in 1811 as part of Gran Colombia. This is where it seceded from later.


Venezuela was governed by a series of military dictatorships until 1958 when Romulo Betancourt won the first democratic presidential election. The 1970s oil crisis brought windfall profits to Venezuela’s oil industry but created further social tensions due to unequal wealth distribution. Unrest grew during the 1980s, when oil prices fell and social programmes were cut, and resulted in an historic agreement between government, business and trades unions.


Further economic problems were exacerbated by an International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan and drastic austerity programme that led to riots, a general strike, martial law and many fatalities. Carlos Andres Perez was elected president in 1989 and survived two military coups in 1992, before being ousted and imprisoned seven years later for embezzlement and corruption.


In 1998 Hugo Chavez, who lead the first coup against Perez, was elected and introduced a new constitution. Hugo Chavez was re-elected in 2000 for a further six years, on a radical reform mandate covering the land and oil industries known as the Bolivarian revolution after the independence hero Simon Bolivar. Reforms in the oil industry prompted a national strike and management lockout in 2002 which led to a 48 hour military coup. A popular uprising followed and a referendum held in August 2004 returned a victory for Chavez and his reform programme.


The last election results returned a clear victory for the Fifth Republic Movement (MVR) headed by Hugo Chavez Frias who received 59% of the vote. The next presidential election is scheduled for 3 December 2006. Other influential political organisations include the Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce (Federación de Cámaras y Asociaciones de Comercio y Producción de Venezuela) also known as Fedecámaras. This organisation represents the interests of twelve industry sectors: banking, agriculture, commerce, construction, energy, manufacturing, media, mining, ranching, insurance, transportation and tourism.


Fedecámaras sets wages and working conditions within these sectors and enforces these through management strikes and lock outs. It was heavily involved in the failed coup attempt in 2002 and its leader, Pedro Carmona, briefly assumed the presidency before seeking sanctuary in Colombia. In 2002 the president appointed a new Board of Directors at Petroleos de Venezuela, the national oil company. This move was deeply unpopular with oil company executives, right wing media interests, the Fedecámaras business group, and opposition trade unions.


A national strike and lockout was called which lasted nine weeks. The military leadership sided with the strikers and took the president into military custody. However, Hugo Chavez resumed his presidency when the interim dictatorship collapsed after two days. Amidst a background of growing popular opposition to the forces attempting to depose the president, the Organisation of American States (OAS) brokered a deal with the government and opposition forces to hold a referendum on the continuation of the presidency. Millions signed two petitions demanding that the referendum be held, and finally the interim government agreed.


Finally in August 2004 the referendum was called to decide whether Hugo Chavez should continue his presidency or leave office immediately. The result was 58% in support of the president, 42% against. This represented a convincing public endorsement of the reform programme and five months later Hugo Chavez signed a land decree intended to break up large estates and redistribute them to the landless. Support for the reform programme translated into electoral success in 2005, and a boycott of the elections by opposition groups led to a national assembly filled with Chavez supporters.


The Confederation of Workers of Venezuela (Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela) (CTV) and National Workers’ Union of Venezuela (Unión Nacional de Trabajadores de Venezuela) (UNT) are the two main rival trade union federations. Historically, CTV actively fought against military coups and represented a symbol of democracy. However it has become increasingly dominated by members supportive of Democratic Action (AD) and sympathetic to the interests of the oil industry and the media.


CTV called the general strike in April 2002 in protest against the president and in collaboration with the lock out organised by Fedecámaras. Subsequently many trade unions broke away from CTV and set up UNT. This new federation supports the reform programme and leadership style of the president.


Venezuelan society remains deeply divided on the reform agenda and further non democratic attempts to depose the president are possible. Powerful domestic and foreign interests are deeply opposed to the reform programme and supporters will need to see real results in alleviating poverty and inequality in Venezuela if they are to continue voting for Hugo Chavez and MVR. In the meantime oil revenues are being used to finance domestic social programmes aimed at poverty reduction and foreign policy initiatives.


Copyright: Rowena Slope 2006 (Redkite Research)


Redkite Research is an internet based company providing research and information services including speech writing, reports and presentations. For more information please go to: []

Treasures For Pleasures!

It is always a matter to consider over when we are investing in gold. While, as we know there are there are legacy of trades and significance to commerce associated with the metal, right from it being considered as the base medium of exchange which took over its role with the advent of different civilizations in the world from ancient times to its value being utilized in the international monetary system as an originator of currency which plays an indispensable and imperative part in the reserves of different nations.

Not just this, it has always played an important part in justifying the significant art works of all time for the aesthetical values produced by it.
Gold stays on to produce irreplaceable worth for every aspect of human life with its prominent virtues of a useful metal. Symbolizing the propositions of wealth and power, gold has always been there to rule our social systems with its ever lasting grace.

Factors being represented by gold are far reaching both in value and benefits. Driven with the fact of being a durable substance with the gloss of glory its role in the jewelry making is quintessential and the one that could never be faded away. If we peep into the adornments equation with gold they have all to suggest the importance with which gold is being endorsed and embraced in our lives, over the ages.

If we peep into the marketplace details and the commodity avatar of gold we would find a lot of facilitating versions and forms over which the metal is being dealt. Just like every commodity reacts to market forces, so does the gold. It has all its sensitivity with rise and fall in market propositions and the prices of gold keeps changing and there emerges another significant role of gold that attracts investors, buyers and sellers who behave differently to the consumers of gold and have their own relevance and equation with gold.

There are various forms and shapes in which gold is being dealt in apart from its ornamental facet. One would find Gold bars, gold coins and other forms of bullion bars and also in the scrap form which is being highly leveraged on by the bullion dealers associated with resourceful concept in which they offer cash for gold.

These days it has become highly easy for dealers to buy gold online with the help of easy and comprehensive online systems that aid to different dealing propositions with the help of shopping modules and handy deliverable modes that the bullion sites and gold deals portals provides to the users with their prompt and attentive designs and full fledged service support for best options for the buyers with different needs in terms of dimensions and denominations of deal.

Bullion Store is a popular company in UK, deals in sales and purchases of silver and Gold bullion, Gold and silver coins. Our specialize in buying unwanted Jewellery, Sell scrap gold, Buying gold, Sell gold for cash, Silver bars, Buy scrap gold, Buy gold online, used and broken gold jewellery.

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Latest Columbia History News

Columbia takes its place in Ivy League history with CIT title
Columbia entered the CIT Championship game aiming to make history, and Grant Mullins wasn't going to allow UC Irvine to prevent it from happening. Mullins spearheaded a late-game rally and brought the Levien Gymnasium crowd to life with an acrobatic …
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Understanding the significance of Reconstruction era in SC's history
Organized by the University of South Carolina History Center and Historic Columbia, “The Reconstruction Era: History and Public Memory” marks the 150th anniversary of the start of the Reconstruction era. Special guests includePulitzer Prize-winning …
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England's V&A museum reveals a brief history of underwear
LONDON — Think of it as Victoria's — and Albert's — secret. London's Victoria and Albert Museum has peeled back fashion's layers to expose everything from long johns to lingerie in “Undressed,” an exhibition tracing the hidden history of underwear.
Read more on Columbia Daily Tribune

Show in works about acting Hazleton chief's work in Colombian drug cartel

Show in works about acting Hazleton chief's work in Colombian drug cartel
The story of how acting Hazleton police Chief Jerry Speziale infiltrated Colombian drug cartels and smuggled cocaine into the United States could become a television series. Sentinel Pictures announced plans to produce a one-hour pilot for a series …
Read more on Citizens Voice

SHSU criminal justice professor explores Mexican cartels in new book
Marijuana has been legalized for medical or recreational use in 23 states and the District of Columbia, which has reduced the illegal drug trade of marijuana across the border. In Switzerland, heroin addicts are provided free heroin and clean needles …
Read more on Huntsville Item

Comic book has personal connection for artist
American writer Justin Jordan knew he had a fertile idea for his fictional tale. He would delve into Mexican drug cartels. But which artist could render this story into riveting life? He needed an illustrator who has a textured, firsthand understanding …
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16 Top Jewels At Baselworld 2016

16 Top Jewels At Baselworld 2016
The U.S.-based company that specializes in colored-gemstone jewels introduced its first piece of jewelry that crossed the $ 1 million threshold: a necklace made of 19 carats of Colombian emeralds and 51 carats of white diamonds set in 18k white gold.
Read more on Forbes

Like humans, Neanderthals used toothpicks too, says study
If you are an avid collector of exquisite jewels, you can make some tasteful additions to your stock with Colombian emeralds, Burmese rubies, Kashmir sapphires, and aquamarine, ranging from Rs 2,00,000 to Rs 70,00,000. With luxury watches slowing …
Read more on Economic Times

Interested in buying a Sachin Tendulkar watch? Make a bid and win
If you are an avid collector of exquisite jewels, you can make some tasteful additions to your stock with Colombian emeralds, Burmese rubies, Kashmir sapphires, and aquamarine, ranging from Rs 2,00,000 to Rs 70,00,000. With luxury watches slowing …
Read more on Economic Times

Columbian Hammocks or Mochilas

In Columbia, a hand woven bag that is made by numerous tribes in the country is known as a mochila. The many types of bags represent a mosaic of the tribes that live in the country and the diverse areas of Columbia. Or instance, the bags that are made in the Guajira area are known for their intricate designs and vibrant colors. Usually, they are made from cotton thread or nylon fiber. In the La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the mochilas are made by the Kogi tribe and are more naturally colored with simple stripes, yellows, oranges, browns, and whites.

Usually, they are made from a natural plant fiber. Conversely, some bags frequently have geometric white and black designs and are made from cotton. A person can learn to distinguish the differ patterns from different tribes through careful observation.

There is nothing more Latin American than a hammock. A person can spend their lazy days near the Caribbean coast, relaxing in the ocean breeze. Another picture that comes to mind is that of renting a hammock for the night after you have been hiking in the jungle all day. Much the same as a mochila, hammocks are available in numerous functions, colors, shapes, and sizes. They are also different based on the area where they were made. Therefore, you might want to buy your hammock that was made in the region where you visited.

Columbian hammocks are available in a one person and two person varieties. Therefore you need to consider carefully if you want to share your hammock with a loved one which may be somewhat awkward at first but then is quickly transformed into a lovely experience. Although many Columbian hammocks are hand woven, these days, they are also being made by machine. You will have to ask a sales representative to tell you if it is machine or handmade and more about the hammock in general.

Be sure to look at the stitching carefully to make sure that is durable because the material is strongly woven, unless you simply want something to decorate your back yard and probably won’t see much use. You should unfold your hammock to determine its shape and size. You should also consider where you are likely to hang your hammock at your house. With some common sense you can find the hammock that will meet all of your needs, and you will be thankful later when your yard has a souvenir that will reflect your travel experience.

Click here for more information about hammocks and rope hammock.